自动挂载NFS文件系统到云服务器(Linux)

<p>为了使云服务器重启时仍然能够挂载NFS类型文件系统,您可以配置Linux系统的自动挂载。</p> <p><strong><span style="font-size:18px">背景信息</span></strong></p> <p>目前,有两种方式可以实现文件系统的自动挂载,您可以根据实际系统的情况选择更加适合您的挂载方式:</p> <ul> <li>方式一:将挂载信息写入/etc/fstab中,文件系统就会自动随着云服务器开机而自动挂载。此种方式操作简单便捷,但如果挂载的文件系统很多,会消耗服务器资源。如果长时间不使用文件系统,会造成资源的浪费,并且影响整个系统的性能。</li> <li>方式二:使用Autofs方式挂载。使用这种方式挂载,在默认情况下,文件系统是处于卸载状态,直到用户访问该挂载点,才会将其自动挂载。如果用户一段时间内不再使用该文件系统,它又将自动进入卸载状态,有效地节省了系统资源。</li> </ul> <p><strong><span style="font-size:18px">前提条件</span></strong></p> <p>在自动挂载前,您需要确保已经完成如下操作:</p> <p>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 创建ECS云服务器。</p> <p>2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 创建CloudNAS文件系统。</p> <p>3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 连接ECS云服务器。</p> <p><strong><span style="font-size:18px">使用/etc/fstab方式实现自动挂载</span></strong></p> <p>1.&nbsp; 以<strong>root</strong>用户登录ECS云服务器。</p> <p>如果当前用户不是<strong>root</strong>用户,执行&nbsp;<strong>sudo su&nbsp;</strong>命令,然后输入当前用户的密码。</p> <p>2.&nbsp; 执行<strong>vi /etc/fstab</strong>命令打开&nbsp;<strong>/etc/fstab&nbsp;</strong>文件。</p> <p>3.&nbsp; 打开文件后,输入&ldquo;<strong>i</strong>&rdquo;,在 <strong>/etc/fstab&nbsp;</strong>文件下方,添加如下信息。</p> <pre> <code>&lt;挂载路径&gt; &lt;本地挂载目录&gt; nfs vers=3,timeo=600,nolock 0 0</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></p> <p>4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 单击ESC,并输入&ldquo;<strong>:wq</strong>&rdquo;,保存文件并退出。</p> <p>5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 执行&nbsp;<strong>cat /etc/fstab&nbsp;</strong>检查修改后的&nbsp;<strong>/etc/fstab&nbsp;</strong>文件中是否已经有了挂载信息。</p> <p>完成上述配置后,当ECS云服务器重启时,系统会从&nbsp;<strong>/etc/fstab&nbsp;</strong>文件中读取挂载信息,完成文件系统的自动挂载。</p> <p><strong><span style="font-size:18px">使用autofs方式实现自动挂载(Centos6.7)</span></strong></p> <p>1.&nbsp; 以<strong>root</strong>用户登录ECS云服务器。</p> <p>如果当前用户不是<strong>root</strong>用户,执行&nbsp;<strong>sudo su&nbsp;</strong>命令,然后输入当前用户的密码。</p> <p>2.&nbsp; 检查是否配置过automount。</p> <pre> <code>cat /etc/auto.nfsc</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>查看云服务器是否挂载过其他文件系统。</p> <pre> <code>df –t nfs -Ph</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>如果上述都没有配置过自动挂载,则需要执行步骤3,否则,直接步骤7。</p> <p>3.&nbsp; 配置相关参数进行操作系统性能调优。</p> <p>执行cat /etc/sysctl.conf命令查看/etc/sysctl.conf中是否存在如下配置。如果没有相关配置,则需要先备份文件,然后写入配置,并使配置生效。</p> <pre> <code>//备份sysctl.conf文件 cp -p /etc/sysctl.conf /etc/sysctl.conf.date +%F_%T //写入如下配置 echo “net.core.rmem_default = 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.core.wmem_default = 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.core.rmem_max = 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.core.wmem_max = 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 655360 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 655360 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf //使配置生效 sysctl -p</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>4.&nbsp; 检查portmap(rpcbind)和nfslock服务并配置</p> <pre> <code>//启动rpcbind服务 service rpcbind start //查看rpcbind服务 service rpcbind status //设置rpcbind服务开机自启动 chkconfig rpcbind on //列出rpcbind服务信息 chkconfig --list rpcbind</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>5.&nbsp; 设置自动挂载。</p> <pre> <code>//备份自动挂载配置文件 cp -p /etc/auto.master /etc/auto.master.date +%F_%T //写入配置 echo “/nfsc/etc/auto.nfsc –timeout=600”  &gt;&gt; /etc/auto.master //查看并启用配置: chkconfig --list autofs #列出autofs服务信息 chkconfig autofs on #设置autofs服务开机自启动 chkconfig --list autofs #列出autofs服务信息 //开启服务 service autofs start</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>6.&nbsp; 配置auto.nfsc文件。</p> <pre> <code>//打开auto.nfsc文件 vi auto.nfsc //输入i,写入如下信息 &lt;本地挂载目录&gt;  -rw,soft,intr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,timeo=300 &lt;挂载路径 &gt;  //  单击ECS,并输入“:wq”,保存文件并退出。 // 使配置生效 service autofs reload</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>7.&nbsp; 触发automount自动挂载。</p> <pre> <code>ls –dl &lt;本地挂载目录&gt;</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>8.&nbsp; 验证挂载是否成功。</p> <pre> <code>df –t nfs –Ph</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size:18px">使用autofs方式实现自动挂载(CentOS7.2)</span></strong></p> <p>1.&nbsp; 以&nbsp;<strong>root&nbsp;</strong>用户登录ECS云服务器。</p> <p>如果当前用户不是&nbsp;<strong>root&nbsp;</strong>用户,执行&nbsp;<strong>sudo su&nbsp;</strong>命令,然后输入当前用户的密码。</p> <p>2.&nbsp; 检查是否配置过automount。</p> <pre> <code>cat /etc/auto.nfsc</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; 查看云服务器是否挂载过其他文件系统。</p> <pre> <code>df –t nfs -Ph</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>如果上述都没有配置过,则需要执行步骤3,如果已经配置,则直接执行步骤7。</p> <p>3.&nbsp; 执行cat /etc/sysctl.conf命令查看/etc/sysctl.conf中是否存在如下配置。如果没有相关配置,则需要先备份文件,然后写入配置,并使配置生效。</p> <pre> <code>//备份sysctl.conf文件 cp -p /etc/sysctl.conf /etc/sysctl.conf.date +%F_%T //写入如下配置 echo “net.core.rmem_default = 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.core.wmem_default = 2621440” &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.core.rmem_max = 2621440” &gt;&gt;  /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.core.wmem_max = 2621440” &gt;&gt;  /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 655360 2621440” &gt;&gt;  /etc/sysctl.conf echo “net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 655360 2621440” &gt;&gt;  /etc/sysctl.conf //使配置生效 sysctl -p</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>4.&nbsp; 检查portmap(rpcbind)和nfslock服务并配置</p> <pre> <code>//启动rpcbind服务 systemctl start rpcbind //查看rpcbind服务状态 systemctl status rpcbind //设置开机启动rpcbind服务 systemctl enable rpcbind //列出所有rpcbind类#型的unit systemctl list-units –type=service grep rpcbind</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>5.&nbsp; 设置自动挂载。</p> <pre> <code>//备份自动挂载配置文件 cp -p /etc/auto.master /etc/auto.master.date +%F_%T //写入配置 echo “/cloudnasclient /etc/auto.nfsc –timeout=60” &gt;&gt; /etc/auto.master //查看并启用配置: systemctl list-units –type=service grep autofs #列出autofs服务信息 systemctl enable autofs #设置autofs服务开机自启动 systemctl list-units –type=service grep autofs #列出autofs服务信息 //开启服务 systemctl autofs start</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>6.&nbsp; 配置auto.nfsc文件。</p> <pre> <code>//打开auto.nfsc文件 vi auto.nfsc //输入i,写入如下信息 &lt;本地挂载目录&gt; -rw,soft,intr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,timeo=300 &lt;挂载路径&gt;  //单击ECS,并输入“:wq”,保存文件并退出。 //使配置生效 systemctl restart autofs</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>7.&nbsp; 触发automount自动挂载。</p> <pre> <code>ls –dl &lt;本地挂载目录&gt;</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>8.&nbsp; 验证挂载是否成功。</p> <pre> <code>df –t nfs -Ph</code></pre> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" /><span style="background-color:rgba(220,220,220,0.5)"><img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAPABAP///wAAACH5BAEKAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" style="height:15px; width:15px" /></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p>
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